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  2. History of United States prison systems - Wikipedia

    The Auburn system's combination of congregate labor in prison workshops and solitary confinement by night became a near-universal ideal in United States prison systems, if not an actual reality. Under the Auburn system, prisoners slept alone at night and labored together in a congregate workshop during the day for the entirety of their fixed ...

  3. Biological hazard - Wikipedia

    A biological hazard, or biohazard, is a biological substance that poses a threat to the health of living organisms, primarily humans. This could include a sample of a microorganism, virus or toxin that can adversely affect human health. A biohazard could also be a substance harmful to other animals.

  4. Big data - Wikipedia

    Big data refers to data sets that are too large or complex to be dealt with by traditional data-processing application software. Data with many fields (rows) offer greater statistical power, while data with higher complexity (more attributes or columns) may lead to a higher false discovery rate.

  5. Interstate Highway System - Wikipedia

    Construction of the original Interstate Highway System was proclaimed complete in 1992, despite deviations from the original 1956 plan and several stretches that did not fully conform with federal standards. The cost of construction of the Interstate Highway System was approximately $114 billion (equivalent to $535 billion in 2020).

  6. Witch trials in the early modern period - Wikipedia

    Throughout the medieval era, mainstream Christian doctrine had denied the existence of witches and witchcraft, condemning it as pagan superstition. Some have argued that the work of the Dominican Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century helped lay the groundwork for a shift in Christian doctrine, by which certain Christian theologians eventually began to accept the possibility of collaboration with ...

  7. Red light camera - Wikipedia

    Worldwide, red light cameras have been in use since the 1960s, and were used for traffic enforcement in Israel as early as 1969. The first red light camera system was introduced in 1965, using tubes stretched across the road to detect the violation and subsequently trigger the camera.

  8. Smart grid - Wikipedia

    The earliest, and one of the largest, example of a smart grid is the Italian system installed by Enel S.p.A. of Italy. Completed in 2005, the Telegestore project was highly unusual in the utility world because the company designed and manufactured their own meters, acted as their own system integrator, and developed their own system software.

  9. History of United States foreign policy - Wikipedia

    History of United States foreign policy is a brief overview of major trends regarding the foreign policy of the United States from the American Revolution to the present. . The major themes are becoming an "Empire of Liberty", promoting democracy, expanding across the continent, supporting liberal internationalism, contesting World Wars and the Cold War, fighting international terrorism ...