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Competence is the set of demonstrable characteristics and skills that enable and improve the efficiency or performance of a job.The term "competence" first appeared in an article authored by R.W. White in 1959 as a concept for performance motivation.
absolute scarcity is the condition where human requirements in the way of food needs are greater than the available quantities of useful goods. Daoud citing Daly (1977) states that "(A)bsolute scarcity . . . refers to the scarcity of resources in general, the scarcity of ultimate means.
Some resources naturally deplete in amount without human interference, the most notable of these being radio-active elements such as uranium, which naturally decay into heavy metals. Of these, the metallic minerals can be re-used by recycling them,  but coal and petroleum cannot be recycled . 
Examples of parallel running implementation. The practical example of parallel running in human resource management is job placement. New staff and old staff work for the same job. If the new staff's performance is OK, the existing staff may not be needed any more, and will be replaced.
Africa. As a tropical continent with substantial anthropogenic development, Africa is a hotspot for biodiversity and therefore, for human-wildlife conflict. Two of the primary examples of conflict in Africa are human-predator (lions, leopards, cheetahs, etc.) and human-elephant conflict.
Educational management refers to the administration of the education system in which a group combines human and material resources to supervise, plan, strategise, and implement structures to execute an education system. Education is the equipping of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, habits, and attitudes with learning experiences.
Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities. It is considered to be an innate tendency of human psychology. Personification is the related attribution of human form and characteristics to abstract concepts such as nations, emotions, and natural forces, such as seasons and weather.
Examples in East and Southeast Asia. Some of the best prospects for economic growth in the last few decades have been found in East and Southeast Asia. Japan, South Korea, China, Hong Kong, Singapore, India, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia, Philippines, and Indonesia are developing at high to moderate levels.