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Email spoofing is the creation of email messages with a forged sender address.. The original transmission protocols used for email do not have built-in authentication methods: this deficiency allows spam and phishing emails to use spoofing in order to mislead the recipient.
Email addresses posted on webpages, Usenet or chat rooms are vulnerable to e-mail address harvesting. Address munging is the practice of disguising an e-mail address to prevent it from being automatically collected in this way, but still allow a human reader to reconstruct the original: an email address such as, "email@example.com", might be written as "no-one at example dot com", for instance.
A mailing list is a collection of names and addresses used by an individual or an organization to send material to multiple recipients. The term is often extended to include the people subscribed to such a list, so the group of subscribers is referred to as "the mailing list", or simply "the list".
A lot of malware is distributed via email attachments with some even considering such to be the main vector for cyberattacks on businesses. Users are advised to be extremely cautious with attachments and to not open any attachments that are not from a trusted source and expected − even if the sender is in their address book as their account might have been taken over or misused.
Spam filters often include the ability to "whitelist" certain sender IP addresses, email addresses or domain names to protect their email from being rejected or sent to a junk mail folder. These can be manually maintained by the user  or system administrator - but can also refer to externally maintained whitelist services.
Network address translation traversal is a computer networking technique of establishing and maintaining Internet protocol connections across gateways that implement network address translation (NAT). NAT traversal techniques are required for many network applications, such as peer-to-peer file sharing and Voice over IP.