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  2. Mind–body problem - Wikipedia–body_problem

    Descartes believed that the mind was non-physical and permeated the entire body, but that the mind and body interacted via the pineal gland. [39] [40] This theory has changed throughout the years, and in the 20th century its main adherents were the philosopher of science Karl Popper and the neurophysiologist John Carew Eccles .

  3. Turing test - Wikipedia

    Turing Test: 50 Years Later reviews a half-century of work on the Turing Test, from the vantage point of 2000. Bet between Kapor and Kurzweil, including detailed justifications of their respective positions. Why The Turing Test is AI's Biggest Blind Alley by Blay Witby; An AI chatterbot that learns from and imitates humans

  4. Mental status examination - Wikipedia

    The mental status examination (MSE) is an important part of the clinical assessment process in neurological and psychiatric practice. It is a structured way of observing and describing a patient's psychological functioning at a given point in time, under the domains of appearance, attitude, behavior, mood and affect, speech, thought process, thought content, perception, cognition, insight, and ...

  5. Total internal reflection - Wikipedia

    1) But the dihedral angle between two planes is also the angle between their normals. So θ 1 is the angle between the normal to the incident wavefront and the normal to the interface, while θ 2 is the angle between the normal to the refracted wavefront and the normal to the interface; and Eq. (1) tells us that the sines of these angles are in the same ratio as the respective velocities. This ...

  6. Rationalism - Wikipedia

    In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification". More formally, rationalism is defined as a methodology or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive ".

  7. Cognition - Wikipedia

    Cognition refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses all aspects of intellectual functions and processes such as: perception, attention, thought, intelligence, the formation of knowledge, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and computation, problem solving and decision ...

  8. Scientific method - Wikipedia

    Important debates in the history of science concern skepticism that anything can be known for sure (such as views of Francisco Sanches), rationalism (especially as advocated by René Descartes), inductivism, empiricism (as argued for by Francis Bacon, then rising to particular prominence with Isaac Newton and his followers), and hypothetico-deductivism, which came to the fore in the early 19th ...

  9. Tangent - Wikipedia

    History. Euclid makes several references to the tangent (ἐφαπτομένη ephaptoménē) to a circle in book III of the Elements (c. 300 BC). In Apollonius' work Conics (c. 225 BC) he defines a tangent as being a line such that no other straight line could fall between it and the curve.