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  2. Self-replicating machine - Wikipedia

    History. The general concept of artificial machines capable of producing copies of themselves dates back at least several hundred years. An early reference is an anecdote regarding the philosopher René Descartes, who suggested to Queen Christina of Sweden that the human body could be regarded as a machine; she responded by pointing to a clock and ordering "see to it that it reproduces offspring."

  3. Sources of the Self - Wikipedia

    In Descartes' philosophy, the vision of a God given meaningful order involving a spiritual essence or expressive dimension within the world was altogether absent. God, moral value and virtue could not be found within the meaningful order of the world. For Descartes, the world and the human body were mechanisms. The mind was immaterial and rational.

  4. List of curves - Wikipedia

    This is a list of Wikipedia articles about curves used in different fields: mathematics (including geometry, statistics, and applied mathematics), physics ...

  5. Personality - Wikipedia

    Descartes himself distinguished active and passive faculties of mind, each contributing to thinking and consciousness in different ways. The passive faculty, Descartes argued, simply receives, whereas the active faculty produces and forms ideas, but does not presuppose thought, and thus cannot be within the thinking thing.

  6. Objectivity (philosophy) - Wikipedia

    Objectivity of knowledge. Plato considered geometry a condition of idealism concerned with universal truth. [clarification needed] In Republic, Socrates opposes the sophist Thrasymachus's relativistic account of justice, and argues that justice is mathematical in its conceptual structure, and that ethics was therefore a precise and objective enterprise with impartial standards for truth and ...

  7. Why there is anything at all - Wikipedia

    They think the question stumps us by imposing an impossible explanatory demand, namely, 'Deduce the existence of something without using any existential premises'. Logicians should feel no more ashamed of their inability to perform this deduction than geometers should feel ashamed at being unable to square the circle."

  8. Martin Luther - Wikipedia

    Christians, he said, must not slacken in following Christ on account of such false assurances. According to one account, Luther nailed his Ninety-five Theses to the door of All Saints' Church in Wittenberg on 31 October 1517. Scholars Walter Krämer, Götz Trenkler, Gerhard Ritter, and Gerhard Prause contend that the story of the posting on the ...

  9. Worldview - Wikipedia

    A constructed world-view should contain an account of its own "building blocks", its origins and construction. Weltanschauung and cognitive philosophy. Within cognitive philosophy and the cognitive sciences is the German concept of Weltanschauung. This expression is used to refer to the "wide worldview" or "wide world perception" of a people ...