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  2. Self-replicating machine - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-replicating_machine

    History. The general concept of artificial machines capable of producing copies of themselves dates back at least several hundred years. An early reference is an anecdote regarding the philosopher René Descartes, who suggested to Queen Christina of Sweden that the human body could be regarded as a machine; she responded by pointing to a clock and ordering "see to it that it reproduces offspring."

  3. Sources of the Self - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sources_of_the_Self

    In Descartes' philosophy, the vision of a God given meaningful order involving a spiritual essence or expressive dimension within the world was altogether absent. God, moral value and virtue could not be found within the meaningful order of the world. For Descartes, the world and the human body were mechanisms. The mind was immaterial and rational.

  4. Intelligence - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intelligence

    Human intelligence is the intellectual power of humans, which is marked by complex cognitive feats and high levels of motivation and self-awareness. Intelligence enables humans to remember descriptions of things and use those descriptions in future behaviors.

  5. Personality - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personality

    Descartes himself distinguished active and passive faculties of mind, each contributing to thinking and consciousness in different ways. The passive faculty, Descartes argued, simply receives, whereas the active faculty produces and forms ideas, but does not presuppose thought, and thus cannot be within the thinking thing.

  6. Free market - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_market

    Advocates of the free market contend that government intervention hampers economic growth by disrupting the efficient allocation of resources according to supply and demand while critics of the free market contend that government intervention is sometimes necessary to protect a country's economy from better-developed and more influential ...

  7. Objectivity (philosophy) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Objectivity_(philosophy)

    Objectivity of knowledge. Plato considered geometry a condition of idealism concerned with universal truth. [clarification needed] In Republic, Socrates opposes the sophist Thrasymachus's relativistic account of justice, and argues that justice is mathematical in its conceptual structure, and that ethics was therefore a precise and objective enterprise with impartial standards for truth and ...

  8. Why there is anything at all - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Why_there_is_anything_at_all

    They think the question stumps us by imposing an impossible explanatory demand, namely, 'Deduce the existence of something without using any existential premises'. Logicians should feel no more ashamed of their inability to perform this deduction than geometers should feel ashamed at being unable to square the circle."

  9. Martin Luther - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Luther

    Martin Luther OSA (/ ˈ l uː θ ər /; German: [ˈmaʁtiːn ˈlʊtɐ] (); 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German priest, theologian, author and hymnwriter.A former Augustinian friar, he is best known among Christians as the seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation and as the namesake of Lutheranism.