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A distributed database is a database in which data is stored across different physical locations. It may be stored in multiple computers located in the same physical location (e.g. a data centre); or maybe dispersed over a network of interconnected computers.
Oracle Database shards since 12c Release 2 and in one liner: Combination of sharding advantages with well-known capabilities of enterprise ready multi-model Oracle Database.  Oracle NoSQL Database has automatic sharding and elastic, online expansion of the cluster (adding more shards).
Database file systems Another concept for file management is the idea of a database-based file system. Instead of, or in addition to, hierarchical structured management, files are identified by their characteristics, like type of file, topic, author, or similar rich metadata .
As toll-free telephone numbers, vanity 800 numbers support flexible call tracking which allows businesses to determine where their incoming call traffic is coming from, build a database of leads, access demographic information on callers, allocate personnel based on calling patterns, analyze ad campaign results and export data to other programs ...
Despite the graph databases' advantages and recent popularity over  relational databases, it is recommended the graph model itself should not be the sole reason to replace an existing relational database. A graph database may become relevant if there is an evidence for performance improvement by orders of magnitude and lower ...
Iris recognition is an automated method of biometric identification that uses mathematical pattern-recognition techniques on video images of one or both of the irises of an individual's eyes, whose complex patterns are unique, stable, and can be seen from some distance.
The advantages and disadvantages for a distributed metadata repository mirror that of a distributed database. Design of information model should include various layers of metadata types to be overlapped to create an integrated view of the data.
As a result of processing, raw data sometimes ends up being put in a database, which enables the raw data to become accessible for further processing and analysis in any number of different ways. Tim Berners-Lee (inventor of the World Wide Web ) argues that sharing raw data is important for society.